A Simple Guide to Philosophical Terms

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Why Philosophy?

why philosophy

Why Philosophy

  1. Existentialism: the belief that through a combination of awareness, free will, and personal responsibility, one can construct their own meaning within a world that intrinsically has none of its own.
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    Existentialism

  2.  Nihilism: the belief that not only is there no intrinsic meaning in the universe, but that it’s pointless to try to construct our own as a substitute.
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    Nihilism

  3.  Absurdism: the belief that the search for meaning is inherently in conflict with the actual lack of meaning, but that one should accept this and simultaneously rebel against it by embracing what life has to offer.
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    Absurdism

  4. Deism: the belief that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a creator, accompanied by the rejection of revelation and authority as a source of religious knowledge.
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    Deism

  5. Materialism: the belief that the reality is what we see or observe in the material things around us.
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    Materialism

  6. Egalitarianism: the belief that suggests that all humans are equal in fundamental worth or social status.
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    Egalitarianism

  7. Feminism: a collection of movements and ideologists aimed at defining, defending and an intention of establishing a state of equal political, economic, cultural, and social rights for woman.
    feminism isn't about making women stronger. women are already strong. it's about changing the way the world perceives that strength.

    Feminism

  8. Sophism: the belief that all thought rests solely on the apprehensions of the senses and on subjective impression, and that therefore we have no other standards of action than a convention for the individual.
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    Sophism

  9. Agnosticism: a view that the truth values of certain claims-especially claims about the existence and non-existence of any deity, as well as other religious and metaphysical claim – are unknown.
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    Agnosticism

  10. Cynicism: an inclination to believe that people are motivated purely by self-interest; scepticism.
    Cynicism

    Cynicism

  11. Idealism: a group of philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as we know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
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    Idealism

  12. Optimism: a mental attitude or world view that interprets situations and events as being the best, meaning that in some way or factors that may not be fully comprehended.
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    Optimism

  13. Perfectionism: the persistence of will in obtaining the optimal quality of spiritual, mental, physical, and material being.
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    Perfectionism

  14. Utilitarianism:  a normative ethical theory that places all the locus of the right and wrong solely on the outcomes(consequences).
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    Utilitarianism

  15. Monotheism: a belief in the existence of one God or in the oneness of the God.
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    Monotheism

  16. Apatheism: acting with apathy, disregard, or lack of interest towards belief or disbelief in a deity.
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    Apatheism

  17. Relativism: concept that points of view have no absolute truth or validity, having only relative, subjective value according to the differences in perception and consideration.
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    Relativism

  18. Altruism: an ethical doctrine that holds that all individual has a moral obligation to help, serve and benefit others.
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    Altruism

  19. Rationalism: a belief that experience does not produce certainty and does not conform to reason, that the knowledge is based on the use of reason and logic.
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    Rationalism

  20. Emotivism: a belief that all individual judgments are purely the expression of one’s own attitude.
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    Emotivism

  21. Hedonism: an ethical position that pleasure is the ultimate goal and greater good and should be the central aim of all decisions made.
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    Hedonism

  22. Solipsism: the ideology that only one’s mind is sure to exist, that knowledge of anything outside one’s mind is unsure, hence there is no such thing as objective truth.
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    Solipsism

  23. Pantheism: the view that nature and the God are same things, that everything in the universe is an all-encompassing God.
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    Pantheism

  24. Syncretism: the attempt to reconcile, disparate, even contradictory beliefs into one belief structure.
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    Syncretism

  25. Authoritarianism: Submission to authority and opposed to individualism and democracy.
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    Authoritarianism

  26. Stoicism: the belief that the development of self-control and fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive emotions.
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    Stoicism

  27. Holism: a theory that the properties of a system cannot be understood by the sum of its parts alone but by how the system behaves as a whole.
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    Holism

  28. Finalism: the doctrine that natural processes, for example, evolution, are directed towards some goal.
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    Finalism

  29. Dualism: the conviction that all objects within the world fundamentally consist of two contrasting qualities, such as good and evil, or body or mind.
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    Dualism

  30. Totalitarianism: a system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete subservience to the state.
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    Totalitarianism

  31. Realism: a belief that reality exists independently of observers.
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    Realism

  32. Scepticism: a belief the knowledge or certainty in a particular area is impossible.
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    Scepticism

  33. Determinism: the propositions that all events, including those of human thoughts, are causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior events.
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    Determinism

  34. Perspectivism: the philosophical view that all ideas come from different perspectives and are caused by a specific inner drive.
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    Perspectivism

  35. Pessimism: a state of mind in which one believes only the worst to be possible.
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    Pessimism

  36. Objectivism: the belief that certain acts are objectively right or wrong.
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    Objectivism

  37. Contextualism: a range of views that argue that the phenomenon can only be properly understood within the context it occurred.
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    Contextualism

  38. Deductions: a view of how scientific knowledge should be acquired-by first proposing a hypothesis.
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    Deductions

  39. Syncretism: the attempted reconciliation or union of different or opposing principles, practices, or parties, as in philosophy or religion.
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    Syncretism

  40. Positivism: a system in philosophy recognizing only that which can be scientifically verified or which is capable of logical or mathematical proof, and therefore rejecting metaphysics and theism.
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    Positivism

  41. Humanism: a democratic and ethical life stance which affirms that human beings have the right and responsibility to give meaning and shape to their own lives.
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    Humanism

  42. Aestheticism: the belief that our main efforts in life should be focused on creating and enjoying beauty in all its forms.
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    Aestheticism

  43. .Historicism: The theory that to understand the historical event, you must first understand the context of philosophy that it took place in, rather than explain it with supposedly timeless or fundamental ideas.
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    Historicism

  44. Eternalism: a position of philosophy that time is just another dimension, that future event already exists, and that all the points in time are equally real.
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    Eternalism

  45. Absolutism: refer to philosophical stances which promote notions of absolute truth, involving contentions that in particular realms of thought, all statements in that domain are either absolutely true or absolutely false.
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    Absolutism

  46. Empiricism: empiricismin philosophy, is the view that all concepts originate in experience, that all concepts are about or applicable to things that can be experienced, or that all rationally acceptable beliefs or propositions are justifiable or knowable only through experience.
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    Empiricism

  47. Metaphysics: the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of existence, being and the world.
    Universal law …

    Metaphysics

  48. Deontologism: an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or the wrongness of the action itself rather than the rightness or wrongness of the consequence.
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    Deontologism

  49. Eudaimonism: a moral philosophy that defines right action as that which leads to the “well-being” of the individual, thus holding “well-being” as having essential value.
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    Eudaimonism

  50. Vitalism: the theory that the origin and phenomena of life are dependent on a force or principle distinct from purely chemical or physical forces.
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    Vitalism

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